Bariatic surgery is an often controversial procedure to help people lose weight. It is often derided as an "easy way out," but the fact is weight loss is difficult, the human body is deigned so that weight is much more easily gained than lost, and most diets usually don’t work for most people. If anything, patients who have weight loss surgery need to put more effort and thought into how and what they eat than dieters typically, do. The various kinds of bariatric surgery reduce stomach capacity in various ways, which make these restrictions easier, but also make them mandatory.
On of the most common types of weight loss surgery is called Roux-en-Y. The intestine is rerouted in a Y shape around most of the stomach and attached to a small pouch. This limits patients to the capacity of that pouch. Other types of surgery used miniaturized instruments inserted through a small incision to place an adjustable band around the stomach, making it smaller that way.
Regardless of the technique used, the health benefits are many. People with type 2 diabetes, for example, normally need insulin and medications the rest of their lives. However, obese people with type 2 diabetes—of which obesity is a major cause—show marked improvement, and in a study some were able to stop this maintenance treatment or diabetes entirely. Other studies found that obese people who underwent bariatric surgery successfully halved their heart attack risk. People on whom the weight loss operation had been performed had a 40 percent lower mortality rate and 50 percent fewer heart attacks than obese people who had not had surgery.
All this however, is not without a price. People who receive the surgery still need to follow a restrictive diet. In fact, it becomes more important, as failing to stick to the diet can result in not merely failing to lose weight, but in medical complications. Furthermore, the restrictive diet can mean nutritional deficiencies if people don’t carefully plan meals and take necessary supplements. There are also some signs that at least some procedures can make bones more brittle. While many patients find that the benefits more than compensate for the risks, it is still important for someone considering surgery for obesity to discuss both with a health care provider.